MISFICTIONARY

Acid Curd

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

This term refers to a milk curd or custard-like state that occurs when there is a high level of acidity.

Acidity

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

This refers to the amount of sourness in milk that is created from the use of a starter culture bacteria.

Acidulated Water

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is sprayed on cut raw fruits or vegetables (apples, bananas, pears, potatoes) to prevent browning. It is usually made by a combination of water and lemon juice or vinegar.

Active Dry Yeast

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

This is a commercially made dry yeast that requires soaking in water in order to activate yeast. It contains a higher amount of dead yeast cells than instant yeast. You can find it in any supermarket baking section. Look for Red Star or Fleishmann's Active Dry Yeast. If you can not locate it, you may want to visit the supermarket's customer service desk or your local Optometrist.

Aging

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

This is an important step in life as well as in cheese making. This process refers to cheese that is stored at a particular humidity and temperature for a certain period of time in order to develop a desired and distinct flavor. This is similar to life but with a far more exciting and flavorful outcome.

Aioli

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the French term for garlic mayonnaise.

Air-drying

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the process of exposing a food to air.

Al Dente

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is an Italian term that is literally translated to "to the tooth." Refers to a food item that is cooked until tender but still firm to the bite. It usually refers to the cooking time of pasta and vegetables.

Albuminous Protein

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a protein in milk that cannot rapidly separate out from the liquid by the addition of rennet. It remains in the whey and can only be separated by high temperatures. This is usually done to make Ricotta Cheese.

Aliolio

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the Spanish term for garlic mayonnaise.

Allioli

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the Italian term for garlic mayonnaise.

Allumette

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

This is a knife cut of vegetables, potatoes, or other items. It is a matchstick shape cut to the dimensions of 1/8" x 1/8" x 2".

Altus Brat

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Is a small amount of stale bread, that has been soaked in water, squeezed dry and left to ferment overnight at room temperature. It is then added to bread dough to increase the flavor of the new bread, such as pumpernickel.

Amandine

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a term that refers to garnishing a dish with almonds, such as Green Beans Amandine or Chicken Amandine.

Angel Food Cake

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A type of sponge cake that is made with stiff-beaten egg whites. This type of cake is used in the making of strawberry short cake, among other dessert items.

Annatto

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

This is a natural vegetable extract used to color cheese. It is added to milk prior to the addition of rennet, in order to give the cheese its yellow coloring. History: Obtained from the seeds of the Annatto tree which is cultivated in the West Indies, Brazil and India.

Antipasto

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is an Italian word that is literally translated to "before the pasta." It is the Italian version of an appetizer; usually encompassing a platter of cold meats, olives, cheeses, vegetables, etc.

Apéritif / Aperitif

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Used to stimulate the appetite, this light alcoholic beverage is consumed before the meal.

Appetizer

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Refers to foods served before the meal. Can be served hot, cold, plated or as passed finger foods.

Arrowroot

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a powdered starch made from the root of the Maranta, a tropical plant, and is used primarily as a thickener for sauces, etc.

Ash

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Used to create a healthy environment for mold growth. This charcoal or vegetable derivative neutralizes the surface of the cheese.

Aspic

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a clear jellied food product made from stock (meat, chicken or fish) thickened with gelatin. It can be cut, cubed and used as a garnish or served as a soup, glaze or to coat molds.

Au Gratin

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Means to cover an item in sauce or to sprinkle it with bread crumbs and cheese then put it under the broiler. A personal Betty favorite. Bring on the cream, cheese and bread crumbs!

Au Jus

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A term that means to serve with natural juices.

Au Natural

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A term that means to cook food in a plain and simple way.

Autolyse

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Refers to a resting period of bread dough after the initial mixing, allowing it to evenly absorb the water. The resting period is usually 20 minutes.

A` L'anglaise / Anglaise

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

This fancy French term translates to "English Style" and refers to foods that have been boiled or breaded and fried.

A` La Carte / A La Carte

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

It is a restaurant menu offering that signifies each dish or item is priced separately. Usually seen at hoity toity restaurants, this menu offering could potentially cost you your child's college education when items are added up.

A` La Minute / A La Minute

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

This French term is literally translated to "at the (last) minute" and means that a food is prepared quickly to order, which means that it should still be hot by the time it gets to your table.

Bacalao

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the Spanish term for Salt Cod.

Bacalhau

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the Portuguese term for Salt Cod.

Baccalà

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the Italian term for Salt Cod.

Bacteria

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Microscopic unicellular organisms.

Bacteria-ripened Cheese

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a type of cheese whose surface bacterial growth is encouraged in order to produce a distinct flavor. Examples of bacteria-ripened cheese are Brick & Limburger Cheese.

Bain-marie

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a simmering or hot water bath that surrounds the cooking vessel. Used to gently cook foods, such as soufflé. Also can be used as a double boiler or to keep food warm on a steam table. 

Bake

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cook food surrounded by dry heat in an oven.

Bake Blind

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Contrary to popular belief, this does not mean you should turn off the kitchen lights or use a blindfold while baking.

 

It refers to the partial or complete baking of an unfilled pastry/pie crust.

Bandaging

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is the wrapping and larding of cheese in order for it to retain moisture, preserve coat and keep its intended shape.

Just look at it like this, you would bandage an open cut to keep dirt from getting in or to keep your finger in tact, right? This is the same thing. The wheel of cheese is like your open gaping wound! Okay, maybe it is not the same thing, but now you will never forget this term!

Banneton

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Is a container or basket (round or oblong) that is used to shape bread dough during its final rise. It helps to give extra support and a rustic appearance.

Barbecue Or Barbeque

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To grill food over a wood or charcoal fire. Also refers to the name of the apparatus. Did you really look this term up?

Barm

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Is a fully mature dough starter that is created from wild yeast.

Baste

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the action of moistening food products with stock, pan drippings, sauces, glazes, fat, or other liquids while cooking in order to prevent the food from drying out. This is a very important action if you do not like chewing on shoe-leather textured food.

Batard

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Is a loaf in the shape of a football or torpedo.

Baton / Batonnet

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

This is a knife cut of vegetables, potatoes, or other items. It is somewhat larger than a julienne and allumette knife cut and is in the shape of a french fry with dimensions measuring 1/4" x 1/4" x 2 - 1/2".

Batter

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a mixture of flour, liquid, and other ingredients, used in the preparation of cakes, quick breads, pancakes, crepes, etc.

Bench Or Benching

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

To allow a dough to rest before shaping. It is like sitting on a bench in order to rest your feet during an arduous day of shopping. Once rested, you are ready to get up and continue spending money on over priced face creams, shoes and electronics. You get the idea!

Beurre

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A French term that is literally translated to "Butter."

Beurre Blanc

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A French term that is literally translated to "white butter." It is an emulsified sauce made with the reduction of white wine and shallots, then thickened with whole butter.

Beurre Fondue

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A French term that is literally translated to "melted butter." It is a melted butter that has been clarified.

Beurre Manié / Beurre Manie

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A French term that is literally translated to "kneaded butter." It is a mixture of equal parts whole butter (by weight) and flour used to thicken gravies and sauces.

Beurre Noir

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A French term that is literally translated to "black butter." It is a clarified butter which is cooked until very dark brown or nearly black.

 

It is also referred to as a sauce made with browned butter, vinegar, parsley and capers otherwise know as Dark Brown Vinegar Butter.

Beurre Noisette

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

It is a French term that is literally translated to "hazelnut butter," or "brown butter." It is a clarified butter that has been heated until browned.

Biga

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

It is a stiff dough starter or pre-ferment that is like the consistency of dough. It is created from commercially made yeast.

Bisque

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a soup made from crustacean or vegetable purée.

Blanch / Blanching

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Means to submerge food (usually vegetables) in boiling water until crisp, usually 2-4 minutes. It is then removed and submerged in an ice bath to rapidly reduce the temperature of the food in order for it to stop cooking. It also helps the item to maintain a crisp texture and color. Betty says blanching can be a hassle, but is necessary if a recipe calls for it.

Blend

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To mix two or more ingredients together until well combined.

Bloom

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Also know by the French word grigne. It refers to the slashed opening on the top of baked dough.

Blue Mold

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

See penicillium roqueforti.

Boil

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cook liquid at or above boiling point, approximately 212° F / 100° C. In other words, when you see big rapid bubbles, it is boiling.

Boning Knife

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A knife that is used to remove bones from cuts of meat, poultry and fish.

 

Attributes: Thin, flexible blade

Available Sizes: Approximately 5" - 6"

Borscht

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a Russian soup made from fresh beets and garnished with sour cream. May be served hot or cold.

Bouillabaisse

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a stew made from fish and shellfish and is flavored with saffron.

Bouillon

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a French word that is literally translated to "broth."

Boule

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

A bread loaf in the shape of a round ball.

Bouquet Garni

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Refers to a bundle of herbs tied together and added to stocks, braises, sauces etc. for flavoring. It is usually removed before serving. Generally contains bay leaf, parsley, thyme, peppercorns, and other ingredients.

Braise

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To brown meat at a high temperature in oil, then cover with liquid and pot lid and finish cooking in the oven or on the stovetop. You probably braise or have made braises without knowing it. Pot Roast, stews, etc. all follow the braise method. You are a more experienced Misfit then you originally thought. The Misfit Crew is proud of you!

Bran

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the outer and highest fiber layer of a cereal grain.

Bread Knife

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

See serrated knife.

Breading / To Bread

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To roll food in a mixture of flour, eggs, bread crumbs, etc. before cooking.

Brevibacterium Linens

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

This red bacterium, used in Brick and Limburger cheese, produces a sharp flavor.

Brine

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

It is a solution of salt, water and seasonings, used to preserve foods.

 

Also brine is used to help retain moisture, by soaking the food in a mixture of salt, sugar and water.

Brioche

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Baked in a fluted pan, this rich yeast dough is traditionally topped with a topknot of dough. Misfit approved for use in Bread Pudding.

Broil

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cook under a direct fire.

Broiler

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a cooking appliance that allows you to cook food under a direct fire.

In case you are not aware, most ovens come with a Broiler setting. The heat is generated from above the racks unlike the bake setting, which generates heat from below the racks.

Broth

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

An aromatic and flavorful liquid made by simmering water or stock with herbs, spices, vegetables, meats, etc.

Brunoise

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A knife cut of vegetables, potatoes, or other items. First julienne, then cut crosswise, allowing the finished product to measure 1/8" x 1/8" x 1/8".

 

Fine Brunoise

1/16" x 1/16" x 1/16"

Brunoise, Fine

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A knife cut of vegetables, potatoes, or other items. Smaller than a regular brunoise. First julienne, then cut crosswise, allowing the finished product to measure 1/16" x 1/16" x 1/16".

Butter Muslin

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a finely woven cotton cloth used to drain soft cheeses.

Butterfat

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is the fat portion (or cream) of the milk. Butterfat ranges from 2 - 1/2% to 5 - 1/2% of the total weight of milk.

Calcium Chloride

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Derived from calcium carbonate, this white solid is used as a drying agent to produce a firmer curd.

Calzone

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a pizza dough stuffed with meats and cheeses. This Italian dish is folded over to resemble a half moon, then baked or fried.

Canapé / Canape

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is an hors d'oeuvre consisting of small pieces of bread or toast, covered with a savory spread or topping.

Capsaicin

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is an active component of chile peppers which, when eaten, gives off a burning sensation. The component is centralized or predominantly located within the whitish pith of the pepper, with smaller amounts in the flesh and seeds.

Capsaicin is also used in the medical field as a pain reliever for muscle, joint and nerve pain.

Consult a doctor before using Capsaicin for medical purposes. If you are brave enough to ingest a chile pepper, consult the gallon of milk in your refrigerator to relieve the incredible burning sensation in your mouth, throat and stomach. Idiot!

Caramelization

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the process of browning sugar in the presence of heat. Sugar caramelizes between 320˚F to 360˚F.

Caramelize

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the process of using the natural sugars within the food product to brown it.

Carving Knife

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A knife used for carving and slicing roasts (meat and poultry), patés and large fruits and vegetables. Usually used in conjunction with a carving fork.

 

Attributes: Spear or rounded point with long, thin blades whose top and bottom edges are parallel

Available Sizes: 8" - 12"

Casein

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

In combination with rennet, this principal milk protein will coagulate and form the foundation for cheese.

Casserole

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a lidded cooking vessel that is used to cook a combination of foods in an oven. It also refers to the food cooked in the vessel.

Cassoulet

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a stew of beans baked with meats and seasonings.

Charcuterie

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the preparation of meat items such as pork, ham, terrines, sausages, patés or other forcemeats.

Cheese Board

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Used to help drain soft cheeses or used to hold cheeses during the aging process. Usually made from ash, fir, maple or birch.

Cheese Mat

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Used to drain soft cheeses. Comes as a wooden reed or food-grade plastic mat.

Cheese Sample

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

The sampling or trying the cheese during different stages in the aging process. This helps to determine whether the cheese is properly maturing and when it will be ready for public consumption.

Cheese Starter Culture

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a bacterial culture (mesophilic or thermophilic) added to milk as the first step in making many types of cheese.

Cheese Trier

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Stainless-steel iron (tool) that is used to take cheese samples during the aging process.

Cheese Wax

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Used to cover most hard cheese, this is a pliable wax with a low melting point that produces an airtight seal that will not crack.

Cheese Wrap

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a cellophane used for wrapping cheese.

Cheesecloth

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

No, it is not cloth made out of cheese.

 

It is a light, fine mesh cotton gauze used for straining liquids, making sachet d'epices, draining curds, lining cheese molds, etc.

Chef

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Created from wild yeast, it is a dough starter that is not yet fully mature or active. Also refers to a person cooking or preparing food professionally.

Chef's Knife

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A knife used for chopping, dicing, mincing, and slicing vegetables, poultry, fish, and herbs.

 

Attributes: Elongated triangle blade Available

Sizes: 6" - 14"

Misfit Recommended: 8" - 10"

Chiffonade

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a knife cut of ingredients into long, fine strips. Commonly used for leafy vegetables and herbs. For leafy herbs, such as Basil, stack leaves on top of each other, roll widthwise, rotate and cut crosswise.

Chinois

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a cone-like sieve used for straining and puréeing foods.

Chop, Coarse

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a knife cut of ingredients into pieces roughly the same size. Usually done with items where appearance is not important.

Chowder

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a thick soup that has a variety of ingredients and usually contains potatoes.

Cioppino

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is an Italian fish stew usually made with white wine and tomatoes.

Clarified Butter

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a butter from which the milk solids and water have been removed.

 

The process is done by heating unsalted whole butter over low heat, until the foam rises to the surface and the milk solids drop to the bottom of the pot. The surface foam should be removed from the pot and discarded. The clear butterfat should be carefully ladled out and placed into another container and refrigerated until needed. The water and milk solids in the bottom of the pot should be discarded.

 

Clarified butter has a higher smoking point then regular butter, therefore is Misfit recommended for making roux, butter sauces and sautéing.

Clean Break

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is the condition of the milk curd when it is ready for cutting. To confirm if this condition has been reached, insert a thermometer into the curd at a 45˚ angle. A clean and firm separation of the curd signifies a clean break.

Cleaver Knife

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A knife used for splitting meat and bones.

 

Attributes: Rectangular, heavy blade that is thick from spine to edge

Sizes: Restaurant grade size varies. Commercial grade home cleavers are approximately 6"

Coagulation

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

The point at which milk or other liquid substances congeals into a thickened mass.

Coddled Eggs

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Eggs that are cooked in their shells, in ramekins or coddlers, in simmering water until set.

 

A NOTE FROM BETTY: Let's be honest, I don't want to coddle my husband (if I had one), my children (if I had them) or my eggs. I am all about fried, scrambled or soft boiled eggs. All other eggs are a waste of my time!

Colander

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a perforated bowl used to strain or drain foods. It allows the separation of liquids from solids. Comes with or without a base or legs.

Compote

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a dish of fruit cooked in syrup and usually flavored with spices or liqueur. Can be prepared with dried or fresh fruits.

Compound Butter

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a butter that has been combined with herbs or other seasonings.

Concassé / Concasse

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Refers to tomatoes that have been peeled, seeded and chopped.

Confit

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is meat that is cooked and preserved in its own fat. It is usually done with pork, duck or goose.

Consommé / Consomme

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a clarified stock or a rich flavored clear soup. The broth is clarified using ingredients that trap impurities, such as ground meats, egg whites, etc.

Convection

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a method by which heat is transmitted through the circulation of air.

Convection Oven

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a type of oven that forces hot air through fans allowing it to circulate around food, cooking it quickly and evenly.

Corned

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a meat cured by marinating in brine.

 

It also refers to the chunks of salt spread over the meat during the corning process.

Couche

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Is a folded cloth used as the resting bed for long bread doughs (baguettes) during rising.

Coulis

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a thick purée that is usually made from vegetables.

Court Bouillon

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a French term that is literally translated to "short broth." It is a vegetable broth that includes wine or vinegar, water and savory herbs. Most commonly used for poaching fish.

Couscous

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Are small grains of semolina and is traditionally cooked by steaming. It is served in both Moroccan and Mediterranean cuisine, generally accompanied by vegetables and meat.

Crépe / Crepe

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a thin pancake made with egg batter.

Crumb

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

The interior or internal structure of a baked loaf of bread. Also refers to the bits of food left behind on your countertops or dinner tables.

Curd

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is the semisolid portion of the milk that appears, once it has coagulated and separated from the whey. This is achieved by the addition of rennet.

Curd Knife

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A knife used for cutting curds within the cheese making process. It has a long blade with a flat end rather than a point tip.

Cure

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Refers to the preservation of food by means of salting, smoking and/or drying.

Dairy Thermometer

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A thermometer that is used to measure the temperature of milk during the cheese making process. Temperature range is from 0˚F to 220˚F.

Deep Fry

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cook foods completely submerged in oil. Super unhealthy, but really good!

Degas

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Is the action of pressing down or punching a dough in order to release air.

Deglaze

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Refers to the method of adding liquid, such as wine or stock, to a pan after roasting or sautéing in order to loosen the fond or drippings left behind.

Degrease

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Refers to the method of skimming the fat off of the top of a liquid, such as sauces or stocks.

Desem

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Created from wild yeast, it is a fully mature dough starter.

Dice, Large

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Refers to a knife cut of ingredients into cubes with dimensions measuring 3/4" x 3/4" x 3/4".

Dice, Medium

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Refers to a knife cut of ingredients into cubes with the dimensions measuring 1/2" x 1/2" x 1/2".

Dice, Small

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Refers to a knife cut of ingredients into cubes with the dimensions measuring 1/4" x 1/4" x 1/4".

Dimple Or Dimpling

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

This is exactly what it sounds like! To press your fingers down into the dough to make dimples or indentations, like in Focaccia bread.

Direct Dough Method

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Is the method of mixing dough without a pre-ferment.

Direct Heating

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is the method of heating milk directly on the stove top.

Direct-set Starter Culture

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is used in the cheese making process to turn the milk protein into a solid white gel. It is a prepackaged starter culture that is added directly to milk, reducing the hard work of making a prepared mother culture.

Divide The Dough

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Another term or saying that is pretty self explanatory, but just in case, it means to cut or separate the dough into smaller pieces. It is usually done before shaping.

Dormancy

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

This is a state in which the yeast activity is slowed usually caused by a decrease in temperature.

Double Boiler

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a type of cookware consisting of two saucepans fitting together so that the contents of the upper pan can be cooked or heated by the boiling water of the lower pan.

Dough Elasticity

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Refers to the elasticity or springiness of dough. It is the degree to which a dough can spring back after it has been stretched or pulled.

Dough Extensibility

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

This is the opposite of dough elasticity. It is the degree to which the dough does not spring back after it has been stretched or pulled.

Dough Starter

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Is a type of mixture (incl. flour, water and yeast) used to induce a desired fermentation.

Draining

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

The process of separating the curd from the whey using a cheesecloth lined colander. It also refers to the state of mind after 12 years of having to ask your husband to take out the garbage.

Dredge

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Means to coat food with dry ingredients (flour, bread crumbs or spices), then shake off the excess.

Drip Tray

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A special tray placed under the mold during the cheese pressing process in order to catch and drain excess whey.

Drippings

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the fat and juice which drops from the roasting meat during cooking. It is used as the base for pan gravy.

Dry Heat

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Refers to heat without the presence of moisture.

Dry Milk Powder

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is dehydrated milk solids. Also known as powdered milk, it can be reconstituted by the addition of water.

Dry Sauté

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To sauté in a non-stick pan without fat.

Drying

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Process of air-drying in order to form a protective rind prior to the aging process.

Dusting

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To sprinkle or distribute a light coating of flour to your pans or work area.

Egg Wash

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

It is a mixture of beaten eggs and liquid. It is used to coat baked goods that require a shiny outer layer.

Emulsify

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To mix two or more items (one fat based liquid and one water based liquid) together.

Emulsion

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Tiny globules of a fat based liquid are suspended in a water based liquid creating a cream-like consistency. See emulsify.

En Croûte / En Croute

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a French term that means a food item is wrapped or encased in a bread or pastry crust.

Enriched Dough

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Dough that contains any type of fat, dairy, eggs or sugar.

Essence

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a concentrated flavoring extract from an item by means of infusion or distillation. (i.e., extracts, concentrated stocks).

Expand The Dough Starter

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

To add four and water to the starter to increase its volume.

Feed The Starter

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

See refresh the starter.

Ferment / Fermentation

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is the process of breaking down carbohydrates (into alcohol) and carbon dioxide gas through the usage of yeast or bacteria.

Fermier

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

See paysanne.

Fermier

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

See paysanne.

Fillet Knife

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A knife used for filleting and preparing fish.

 

Attributes: Very flexible boning knife

Available Sizes: 6" - 11"

Fines Herbes

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a mixture of herbs, usually chervil, chives, parsley and tarragon.

Fish Sauce

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a common condiment in Southeast Asian Cooking and is used to flavor curries, and other dishes. It is made from fish, specifically anchovies that have been fermented with salt and water. The liquid from the fish is released and captured to be sold as fish sauce.

Flambé / Flambe

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To pour warm liqueur over food, then to light on fire. The point is to evaporate the alcohol from the dish while maintaining the underlying flavor of the liqueur. This is for the Advanced Misfit who is fearless.

A NOTE FROM BETTY: Personally, I am not a fan of setting things on fire in the kitchen, mostly because I am a big fat chicken!

Flora Danica Starter

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A starter culture used to make fresh goat cheese. May be used as a direct-set or a reculturable starter.

Flour Blanket

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

To cover a sponge or batter-like pre-ferment with flour.

Foie Gras

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the flattened liver of goose or duck. Yes, Liver! It does sound better in French.

Fold

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the method of gently combining ingredients. The purpose is to not release trapped air bubbles.

Follower

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A flat disc within a mold that applies even pressure to the curd. Usually comes in stainless steel, plastic or wood.

Fond

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Refers to the remaining food particles stuck to the bottom of a pan after roasting or sauting.

Fondant

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is an icing used for pastry and confections. Made with sugar, water and glucose.

Food Processor

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a machine used for a variety of tasks, including chopping, grinding, kneading, slicing, shredding, or puréeing. It comes with interchangeable blades and disks. Misfit recommended for all levels!

Forcemeat

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a mixture of chopped or ground meats, spices, etc. forced together and is primarily used in patés, terrines, sausages, etc.

Fricassée

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a stew including poultry or other white meat and a white sauce.

Friction Factor

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Refers to the amount of heat generated by bread dough when being mixed by a processor or mixer.

Fritter

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a sweet or savory food coated in batter and deep fried.

Fumet

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a type of stock (mushroom or fish) cooked in a covered pot with wine and aromatics.

Ganache

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a pastry filling, icing or glaze made from chocolate and cream.

Garnish

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is an edible decoration placed on a dish to make it appealing to look at.

Garnishing

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

The process of placing a garnish on the serving plate.

Gazpacho

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a cold soup made from vegetables.

Gelatin

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a protein based substance found in animal bones. It can be used as a thickener and stabilizer when dissolved in hot liquid and cooled.

Geotrichum Candidum

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A white mold that grows on soft mold-ripened cheeses (Camembert and Brie) giving it a delicious and irregularly patterned white skin.

Gerkin

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a small pickled cucumber.

Ghee

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

This term refers to either a pure butterfat ghee, otherwise know as clarified unsalted butter, or vegetable ghee, made from vegetable shortening. It has a higher smoking point, which means items cooked in it will not burn as quickly. See clarified butter for more information.

Giblets

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Are the liver, heart, gizzard and neck from poultry.

Glace

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a reduced stock.

Glaze

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

The process of giving a food item a shiny surface by brushing it with sauce, aspic, icing, etc.

Glaze Or Glazing

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

To wash, glaze or cover a risen dough with an egg wash or melted butter prior to baking, in order to give the finished product a glossy appearance.

Gratin

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To brown in an oven or under a broiler or salamander.

Grigne

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

See bloom.

Grill

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cook over a direct fire. This is usually done outside on a (...wait for it) Grill or Barbecue.

Grind

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To reduce food to a powder consistency.

Gur

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

See palm sugar.

Hard Cheese

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Cheese that is hard and firm due to a high moisture content removal process. It is pressed and aged for a length of time to increase flavor development.

Haricot

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A French term that is literally translated to "bean."

Haricot Vert

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A French term that is literally translated to "Green Bean." This type of green bean is usually smaller than a Bush or Pole bean.

Hash

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is chopped cooked meat and vegetables, seasoned with sauce and sautéed.

Hominy

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Corn that has been milled to remove the bran and germ.

Homogenization

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is the method used to prevent milk fat from separating. At a high pressure, milk is forced through an ultra-fine mesh, breaking up fat globules and dispersing them evenly throughout the liquid.

Hors D'oeuvres

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A French term that is literally translated to "outside the work" and means appetizer.

Hummus

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a Mediterranean appetizer of puréed chickpeas and tahini, usually eaten with Pita Bread.

Hydration

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

The percentage of water contained in the dough.

Ice Bath

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a combination of water and ice.

Generally used for the submersion of hot foods, such as vegetables, to rapidly reduce its temperature ensuring that it stops cooking.

Indirect Heating

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Heating process by which a pot of milk or other liquid is placed into a bowl or sink full of hot water.

Infusion

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the method (or the end product) of steeping aromatics or other items in liquid to extract its flavor.

Inoculate The Dough

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

This does not refer to giving your dough a tetanus shot. It means to add a sourdough culture to the dough.

Instant Yeast

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Contains more live yeast cells than active dry yeast. It does not require proofing or soaking in warm water for activation and can be directly added to the flour mixture.

Jaggery

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

See palm sugar.

Julienne

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a knife cut of vegetables, potatoes, or other items into matchstick shaped thin strips with dimensions measuring 1/8" x 1/8" x 1".

Julienne, Fine

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Smaller than a julienne cut, it is a knife cut of vegetables, potatoes, or other items into match-shaped thin strips with dimensions measuring 1/16" x 1/16" x 1".

Junket Rennet

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a very weak type of rennet. Not Misfit recommended for cheese making.

Jus

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a French word literally translated to "Juice".

Kitchen Knife

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

See utility knife.

Knead

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

The method of stretching dough repeatedly in order to give it a good consistency and proper quality. You need to Knead!

Lactic Acid

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a by-product that occurs when a cheese starter culture consumes the milk sugar or lactose, thus creating an acid.

Lactose

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a sugar naturally present in milk. Lactose generally constitutes up to 5% of the total weight of milk.

Lame

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

A type of curved razor blade used to slash bread dough.

Laminated Dough

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Refers to dough which contains a high percentage of fat layered into it, such as croissants.

Lard

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is rendered pork fat.

Lean Dough

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Refers to dough that has little or no eggs, fat or sugar.

Leavener

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Any process or ingredient that produces gas and causes the rising of baked goods.

Levain

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Created from wild yeast, it refers to a fully mature dough starter, which can be the consistency of a batter or of stiff dough.

Lipase Powder

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a cheese making enzyme added to milk to create a stronger flavored cheese.

Liqueur

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

An alcoholic spirit flavored with fruit, spices, nuts, etc. and is usually sweetened.

Liquid Starter

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Is a dough starter with a batter-like consistency.

Low-fat Milk

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a type of milk that contains 1% to 2% of butterfat and has had most of the cream removed.

Lox

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is salt-cured salmon.

Lozenge

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a knife cut in which foods are cut into small diamond shapes.

Madre Bianca (mother)

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Created from wild yeast, it refers to a fully mature dough starter.

Mandoline

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Unlike the musical instrument, this is a device for slicing foods into various shapes and thickness'. It is made out of stainless steel.

Marinade

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Liquid or dry ingredients combined to give added flavor and to moisten foods.

Marinate

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To soak foods in liquid or brine to give added tenderness and flavor.

Marzipan

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a paste used to fill and/or decorate pastries. Made from ground almonds, sugar and egg whites.

Melt

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To liquefy an ingredient by heating.

Membrane Test

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

This is a test to gauge whether there is adequate gluten development within moist dough. If a small piece of dough is able to be stretched until translucent without tearing, you are on the right track and adequate gluten development has taken place.

Meringue

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the end product of beating egg whites until stiff, sweetening and possibly baking until stiff. Varieties includes Italian, Swiss and regular.

Mesophilic Cheese Starter Culture

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a blend of lactic acid producing bacteria used when a cheeses cooking temperature is 102˚F or below.

Milkstone

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A residue from milk that is deposited onto cheese making utensils over time.

Mill / Milling

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

The process of grinding grains into flour or meal.

Milling

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

The process of breaking curds up into smaller pieces before placing them into a cheese press.

Mince

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a knife cut of ingredients into very small pieces.

Mirepoix

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a combination of onions (50%), carrots (25%) and celery (25%) used to flavor stocks, soups, stews, etc.

Mise En Place

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a French term that literally translates to "to put in place." This is the method of preparing ingredients, kitchenware, etc. prior to the start of cooking a particular dish.

Mist Or Misting

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

To spray a dough with water before baking.

Molasses

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the sweet dark brown syrup made from refining sugar cane.

Mold-ripened Cheese

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A type of cheese in which mold is encouraged to grow on the surface and/or the interior. Most common types are blue mold (Blue Cheeses) and white mold (Camembert, etc.)

Molding

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

To place the curd in a mold in order to achieve a desired shape and encourage proper drainage.

Mother Starter Culture

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

See prepared starter culture.

Mousse

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a sweet or savory dish made with beaten egg whites and/or whipped cream that is folded into a flavored base ingredient.

Napoleon

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a sweet pastry made from layered puff pastry filled with pastry cream and usually glazed with fondant.

Nappé

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is when a sauce is thick enough to coat the back of a spoon. It is not a reference for badly tangled hair.

Non-fat Milk

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a type of milk that contains less than .5% butterfat and has had most of the cream removed.

Noncorrosive

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A material that can not be broken down or eroded by acid.

Oblique

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a knife cut of ingredients into a diagonal, then rolled 180 degrees, and cut on the same diagonal. Used with long cylinder-like vegetables.

Oiling

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Refers to the application of vegetable oil to cheese in order to provide a protective layer to keep the cheese from drying out.

Old Bread

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

See Altus brat.

Omelet

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a beaten egg, cooked in a pan with butter, then rolled or folded into an oval or half-circle. It can be filled with cheese and/or vegetables.

Paella

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a dish of rice that is cooked with tomato, onion, garlic, vegetables and meats such as chorizo, chicken, shellfish, etc. It is a popular cuisine of Spain and Portugal.

Palate

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the roof of an individual's mouth that separates the mouth from the nasal cavity. It is responsible for one's sense of taste.

Palm Sugar

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is unrefined sugar from the sap of a coconut, date or sago palm tree.

It is consumed in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. It can be found in specialty stores around the US. Color varies from golden to dark brown and is sold in solid cakes that can be cut and crumbled or shaved.

Pan-broil

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cook in way similar to dry sautéing. The method stimulates broiling by cooking an item in a hot pan, with little or no fat.

Pan-fry

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cook food uncovered, in a skillet with enough fat to reach halfway up the side of the food. This method generally uses less fat than deep frying and more fat than sautéing or stir-frying.

Pan-steam

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cook food in a covered pan over direct heat with very little liquid.

Panela

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

See palm sugar.

Par-cook

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Method of partially cooking food before storing or finishing by another method.

Parchment Paper

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a heat resistant paper used for lining pans, steaming and covering foods during a shallow poaching.

Paring Knife

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A knife used for peeling and pitting fruits, slicing or cutting small fruits and vegetables, de-veining shrimp, or boning small fish and poultry.

 

Available Sizes: 2" - 4"

Misfit Recommended: 3"

Pasteurization

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is the process of heating milk products to 145°F for 30 minutes in order to kill microorganisms that could contaminate milk and be harmful to humans.

Pastry Bag

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A plastic, canvas or nylon bag that is fitted with decorative tips in order to pipe out icings or puréed foods.

Paté / Pate

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a forcemeat (made of meat, game, seafood, poultry, or vegetables) baked in pastry or in a mold or dish.

Paysanne

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a knife cut of ingredients into flat, square pieces with dimensions measuring 1/2" x 1/2" x 1/8".

Pâte Fermentée

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Refers to dough that has undergone its first rising or fermentation.

Peel

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Refers to a flat paddle that is used to slide bread loaves in and out of the oven. Also refers to the skin or rind of a food item.

Peeling

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Is the action of moving or transferring the bread loaves from the peel to the oven. Also refers to the removal of the skin or rind of a food item.

Penicillium Camemberti

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a white mold used for Camembert and Brie cheeses.

Penicillium Candidum

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A white mold used for Camembert and Brie cheeses.

Penicillium Roqueforti

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a blue mold used for a variety of blue cheeses such as Stilton, Gorgonzola, Roquefort, etc.

Pesto

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a thick puréed mixture combined with oil, garlic, cheese, nuts or other seasonings. A pesto base can be made from basil, olives, sun dried tomatos, etc.

Phyllo Dough

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a pastry made with thin sheets of dough, layered with butter.

Pilaf

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the cooking of grains by sautéing first in butter, then simmering in stock or water, with seasonings.

Pith

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the loose, spongy interior of a citrus fruit that lay between the meat and the rind.

Poach

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cook slowly in simmering liquid. Liquid temperature should be between 160°F to 185°F. You may poach pretty much anything (Eggs, Chicken, Fish). Drop it in the liquid and call it a day!

Polenta

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

This is a traditional Italian dish of cornmeal mush.

Poolish

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Made from commercial yeast, it is a batter-like pre-ferment or dough starter. Can either be made the same day or the day before and is fermented at room temperature.

Powdered Milk

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

See dry milk powder.

Pre-ferment

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Is a dough starter that begin the fermenting process prior to the final mixing of the dough. This extends the length of the fermentation and aides in flavor development.

Prepared Starter Culture

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A culture that contains live bacteria that is used to turn milk protein into a solid white gel.

Preshape Or Preshaping

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

To shape or round the dough, then allow it to relax prior to final shaping. This ensures the dough's proper elasticity making the final shaping effortless.

Pressing

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

The process of placing curds into a cheesecloth lined mold and pressed to remove excess whey.

Pressure Cooker

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

See pressure steamer.

Pressure Steamer

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a machine that cooks food under pressure (from the steam produced by heating water) in a sealed compartment that reaches temperatures higher than boiling point (212˚F). The steamer / cooker can not be opened until the pressure is released and the steam properly vented. This is often used in the home canning of various foods.

Primary Bulk Fermentation

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Refers to the first rising of the dough before it has been divided and/or shaped.

Proof Box

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

See proofer.

Proof Or Proofing

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Refers to the step when yeast is combined with warm water thus activating it's development. Also refers to the final rising or secondary fermentation of shaped dough.

Proofer

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

A temperature and humidity controlled environment or compartment that dough is placed during rising.

Proper Break

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

To wad a handful of curds into a ball. If the curds can be easily broke back into individual curds, it is properly cooked and called a proper break. This process is only used in the making of Swiss Cheese.

Purée / Puree

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To mash, strain or chop food into a smooth paste or thick liquid. It also refers to the end product or result from using this method.

Quenelle

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a lightly poached dumpling made from forcemeat which is bound by eggs and are formed, with the help of two spoons, into a three-sided oval or a tiny tiny football shape.

Ramekin

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a small ceramic ovenproof dish used as a vehicle for making soufflé, crème brûlée, among other items. It may also be used as a bowl for ingredients while prepping.

Raw Milk

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Milk that is taken directly from the animal and has not been pasteurized.

Re-dressing

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

To change the cheesecloth on a cheese that is being drained, in order to reduce the chance of the cheesecloth adhering to the cheese.

Reculturable Starter

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A culture that can made into a mother culture and reproduced for many generations of bacteria.

Red Bacteria

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

See Brevibacterium linens.

Reduce

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Means that you must decrease the volume of the liquid by means of simmering or boiling. Simmering and/or boiling causes an evaporation of liquid; which, in turn, will provide you with a thicker consistency and more concentrated flavor.

Reduction

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Signifies the method in which a sauce was created, through the act of reducing. It is the end product!

Refresh The Starter

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

To add flour and water to a sourdough starter.

Render

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the process of melting fat to a liquid state, and clarifying its dripping by removing the impurities for use in pan-frying or sautéing.

Rennet

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A milk coagulating enzyme (Animal, Vegetable or Chymostar Classic) used in the cheese making process.

Renneting

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

To add rennet to milk to facilitate coagulation of the curds.

Rest

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Means to allow food to sit for a while (undisturbed) after roasting and before carving, in order for the juices to seep back into the meat.

Retard Dough

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

To chill dough in order to slow down the dough's fermentation process and allow the development of complex flavors.

Rich Dough

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Refers to dough that contains 20 percent or more fat.

Rind

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the tough, hard outer layer of fruits or cheeses.

Ripen Dough

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

To chill the dough and allow it to rest.

Ripening

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is the process when milk undergoes an increase in acidity as a result of the cheese starter culture bacteria.

Risotto

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is rice that is sautéed in butter (and other items) then combined with stock, adding a little at a time while constantly stirring. This method produces a creamy texture. This dish is generally made with Arborio rice.

Roast

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cook by dry heat in an oven, usually at a medium temperature of approximately 350°F. The name of the recipe usually tells you the method in which it is cooked (i.e., Roast Chicken, Roast Beef, Roast Turkey, Roasted Vegetables).

Roll Cut

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

See oblique.

Rondelle

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a knife cut of cylinder-like vegetables crosswise that produces round or oval flat pieces.

Rose Water

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the diluted extract of edible rose petals. It can be used to flavor foods, such as marzipan.

Rotisserie

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a cooking style of using a large rotating rod to hold food while it is being roasted in the oven or over an open fire. It may either be done vertically or horizontally.

Rough Cut

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

See chop.

Round Or Rounding The Dough

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Refers to the action of tucking the dough edges under, in order to give it a smooth outer surface.

Roux

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a combination of equal parts flour and butter (fat), cooked then used to thicken liquids.

Rub

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a combination of spices applied to meats in order to marinate and provide a flavorful crust.

Sabayon

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A wine custard that is made with Marsala wine and flavored, sweetened egg yolks and beaten in a double boiler until frothy.

Sachet D'epices

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a French term literally translated to "bag of spices." It is usually a combination of parsley, peppercorns, dried thyme and bay leaf enclosed in a cheesecloth bag and is used to flavor stocks and other liquids.

Salamander

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Unlike the scale-less lizard looking amphibian, this is a broiler-like stove that cooks with heat from above and has an adjustable shelf below.

Salting

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

To add cheese salt to the curds before molding or to the surface of a finished cheese.

Santoku Knife

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the Asian version of the chef's knife.

 

Attributes: Straighter edge, blunted tip blade and thinner spine than and American chef's knife

Size: 5" - 7"

Sashimi

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is sliced raw fish, usually served with pickled ginger, wasabi and soy sauce.

Saturated Brine Solution

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A solution of water and salt, in which cheese is soaked.

Sauce

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a flavored liquid served as an accompaniment to food.

Sausage

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a highly spiced forcemeat mixture enclosed in a casing or pressed into patties.

Sauté / Saute

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cook on the stove, over a high heat in a small amount of fat (Oil or Butter), turning frequently. This is similar to pan-fry, but with less fat.

Savory

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Signifies a food that is not sweet.

Scald

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a method of heating milk or cream (or other liquids) just below boiling point. A thin skin forms over milk and bubbles around the perimeter of the pot indicating sufficient heating.

Scale

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

A device that measures the weight of foods or other ingredients.

Scaler

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a tool used to remove fish scales from fish and is used by scraping against the scales direction.

Score

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cut the surface of an item to allow even cooking.

Scoring

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

See slashing.

Scoville Heat Scale

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a standard measurement of the amount of heat or pungency a chili pepper emits based on its capsaicin content. Invented by chemist Wilbur Scoville, the number of Scoville heat units (SHU) indicate the amount of capsaicin present within the chili.

Sear

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the method of browning the surface of a food over high heat in fat before finishing by another method.

Seasoning

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the method of adding ingredients, such as spices, to food in order to give it a particular flavor.

Seed Culture

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Created from wild yeast, this dough starter is not yet fully mature and active.

Serrated Knife

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a knife used for slicing cake, bread, tomatoes and delicate items such as paté.

 

Attributes: Long, moderately rigid blade with blunt tip and scalloped teeth

Available Sizes: 6" - 10"

Shallow Poach

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To gently cook food in simmering water or liquid. The liquid is often reduced and used as a basis for sauce.

Sheet Pan

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a flat pan with an edged lip and is used to cook foods in an oven.

Sherbet

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

See sorbet.

Shirred Egg

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is an egg baked in a ramekin with butter and cream.

Shock

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To place an item into an ice bath immediately after blanching, in order for it to stop cooking.

Shrimp Paste

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is made from fermented ground shrimp, which is pounded, with the help of a salt, into a paste, then dried. It has an unappetizing smell but is used in most Southeast Asian and Southern Chinese cuisine. It can be found at specialty stores that sell Imported Asian items.

Sieve

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a wire mesh container used to drain, rice or purée foods.

Silverskin

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the annoying tough connective tissue that surrounds certain muscles in meat.

Simmer

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cook liquid at just below the boiling point, approximately 180°F. In other words, when you see tiny child-like bubbles, it is simmering.

Simple Syrup

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a mixture of sugar and water, that is heated until the sugar dissolves. Other ingredients can be added for flavoring.

Skim

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the method of removing impurities from the surface of a liquid while cooking.

Skim Milk

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

See non-fat milk.

Slashing

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Refers to the action of cutting or slicing the dough in order to release steam during baking.

Slitting

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

See slashing.

Slurry

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the combination of thickening starch (cornstarch, arrowroot, etc.) and cold liquid, whisked until smooth then added to hot liquid as a thickener.

Smoke Roast

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

The method of roasting foods that are placed over a pan containing smoke chips.

Smoking Point

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Refers to the temperature at which a cooking fat or oil begins to break down (or smoke), which can mark the decline of its flavor, quality and frying function. The higher the smoking point, the better when sautéing, deep frying, pan-frying, etc.

Smother

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

The method of cooking foods over low heat, in a covered pan with little liquid.

Soft Cheese

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A cheese that is not pressed, not aged or aged for a short time, and has a high moisture content.

Sorbet

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a fruit flavored ice typically served between courses as a palate refresher. It is also referred to as sherbet.

Soufflé

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a puffed food (when baked) that contains sauce, egg whites and flavorings.

Sourdough Bread

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Made with wild yeast, sourdough bread is a naturally leavened bread.

Sourdough Culture Or Starter

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Made from wild yeast, this fully mature dough starter can have a batter-like or stiff consistency.

Spit

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a rotating cooking device used to hold large meats while roasting over an open fire.

Spit-roast

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the method of roasting an item on a large skewer (or spit) over an open flame.

Sponge

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Is a thick yeast batter that is combined with other ingredients to form a yeast dough. The batter ferments and develops a light, spongy consistency.

Spring Form Pan

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a round pan with high sides and an external side clamp that makes the removable base or bottom easy to unclasp and detach.

Spritz Or Spritzing

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

See mist or misting.

Starter Culture

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

See direct-set starter culture.

Steam

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To cook foods in a covered pot out of contact from boiling liquids. The foods that you want to steam should never actually touch the liquid, which is why steaming pots were invented.

Steamer

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a type of kitchenware that has two individual pieces; one smaller pot with a perforated bottom that sits within a larger pot but over the boiling or simmering water.

Steep

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

The method of placing an ingredient in warm or hot liquid, in order to soften the item or extract it's flavor, such as tea or coffee.

Stew

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To brown smaller pieces of meat at a high temperature in oil and then cover it with liquid and the pot's lid. Similar to braising but with a shorter cooking time. It also refers to the finished product cooked by this method.

Stiff Starter

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

A dough starter with a stiff consistency.

Stock

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a liquid that has been simmered with meat, poultry or fish bones, vegetables and herbs for an appropriate amount of time.

Stockpot

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a large round pot that is taller than it is wide. It can be used for making stocks, soups, large sauce quantities, etc. It sometimes has a spigot at the bottom which allows the stock to be removed from the bottom without having to skim impurities from the top.

Straight Dough Method

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

See direct dough method.

Strain

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the method of passing liquid through a colander or sieve in order to separate the solids from the liquid.

Strong Flour

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Refers to flour that has a high content of gluten forming proteins.

Sweat

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To sauté over low heat to remove moisture and to soften. Usually refers to vegetables. This method is specifically used to teach us Misfit cooks patience. If it had a motto, it would be “Slow and Steady.”

Tacky

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Not just a term used to describe hideous clothes, it also refers to dough that is slightly sticky, but not enough so, that it adheres to your fingers.

Tart

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

It is a pie without a top crust and can be either sweet or savory.

Tartlet

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

It is a smaller individually sized version of a tart, and can be either sweet or savory.

Temper

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the method of gently and gradually heating. This method is to incorporate a hot liquid into a cold liquid slowly in order to raise the temperature of the cold liquid in increments. May also refer to the melting of chocolate.

Terrine

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a forcemeat loaf (similar to paté) but cooked in a mold set within a bain-marie.

Thermophilic Cheese Starter Culture

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is a bacteria starter used for cheeses that must cooking at high temperatures. Most Italian and Swiss cheeses call for Thermophilic Starter.

Thickener

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is an ingredient used to give body and texture to liquids.

Timbale

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a mold used to shape custards, rice, etc. It is also the end result of ingredients made in the mold.

Top-stirring

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Stirring the top of non-homogenized milk in order to keep the cream from rising immediately after the addition of rennet.

Tourné

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a knife cut of ingredients into a small seven-sided barrel or football shape, that is no longer then 2" in length.

Truss

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the method of tying up meat or poultry with string to make it compact for the purpose of even cooking and giving it a better appearance.

Turning The Dough

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

To pull, stretch or roll dough, and finish by folding it into a tight package for the purpose of gently stretching and developing it's gluten.

Ultra-Heat-Treated (UHT)

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Milk that has been flash heated for a few seconds between 275˚F and 300˚F to provide a longer shelf life.

Ultrapasteurization

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

A high heat treatment for milk to provide a longer shelf life.

Utility Knife

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

It is a smaller narrow bladed version of the chef's knife. Used for slicing small fruits, vegetables and cheese, as well as boning meats and poultry.

 

Attributes: Narrow bladed version of the chef's knife

Available Sizes: 4" - 7"

Vinaigrette

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is made with three parts oil to one part vinegar and a variety of seasonings. It is usually served cold.

Wasabi

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is known as Japanese Horseradish and is a member of the Brassicaceae family.

Waxing

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

To apply cheese wax to cheese to prevent drying and inhibit mold growth.

Whey

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

Is the liquid left over after the formation of milk curds. It contains water, milk sugar, albuminous protein and minerals.

Whip

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

To beat an item (cream, egg whites, etc.) to incorporate air.

White Mold

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Cheese Making

See penicillium camemberti or penicillium candidum.

Whole Grain

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is an unprocessed or unmilled grain.

Whole Wheat Flour

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a flour milled from the whole grain.

Wild Yeast

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

Are microorganisms that reside both in the air and on the particles of flour. It can be made at home with certain types of flour, water and patience.

Window Pane Test

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: Bread Baking

See membrane test.

Yam

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is a large tuber that is also referred to as a Sweet Potato.

Yeast

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is microscopic fungus which is responsible for fermentation, through it's metabolic processes. It is used for various items such as wine, beer, cheese making and leavening bread. It can be purchased dry or fresh or even grown in your own home.

Zabaglione

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

See sabayon.

Zest

Category: Culinary
Subcategory: General Term

Is the thin, colored, outer layer of a citrus rind and contains important oils used for flavoring.



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